Wednesday, December 31, 2008
This UNESCO card recognizes that 2009 has been designated the International Year of Astronomy and UNESCO has been designated its lead agency in the United Nations system.
Tuesday, December 30, 2008
- Member states are to submit information on their candidates for the post by May 31, 2009.
- The Secretariat will provide a list of candidates (in confidence) to the member states and Executive Board by the first week in June.
- Candidates will then have until August 1st to submit statements of their views about the future of UNESCO.
- At the 182nd session of the Executive Board (7-23 September 2009) the candidates are to be interviewed, and one is to be selected by secret ballot to be recommended to the General Conference (which is expected to meet 6 to 23 October 2009).
- The General Conference is to elect the next Director General, but in the past the General Conference has always ratified the recommendation of its Executive Board.
Al-Ahram in November had an interview with the Egyptian candidate.
According to Topposts, Musa Bin Jaafar Bin Hassan has been nominated by Oman for the post of Director General of UNESCO. According to Wikipedia:
Ambassador Dr. Musa Bin Jaafar Bin Hassan is a career diplomat and academic. Dr. Hassan is one of the longest serving diplomat to UNESCO as Ambassador, Permanent Delegate of Oman from May 1984 to present. He has been decorated with 1 UNESCO Gold Medal, 3 UNESCO Silver Medals as well as the honorary title of "Ambassador for Peace."He was President of the 33rd session of the General Conference, UNESCO's supreme governing body.
Saturday, December 27, 2008
According to the Associated Press, Pope Benedict XVI in marking the 400th anniversary of Galileo's use of a telescope saluted UNESCO's World Year of Astronomy.
The United Nations has proclaimed 2009 the International Year of Astronomy (IYA 2009) and designated UNESCO as its lead agency.
The UNESCO Thematic Initiative “Astronomy and World Heritage” launched in support of this International Year aims to establish a link between science and culture with a view to highlighting the scientific value of cultural sites connected with astronomy.
Egyptian periodical reports a campaign to prevent Farouk Hosni becoming the next UNESCO director-general is taking shape
It was not an easy week for Minister of Culture Farouk Hosni and the members of his 2009 UNESCO election campaign committee. Hosni was caught up in yet another drive against his nomination for the post of UNESCO director-general and its impact lingers on.Read more....
Earlier this week a rumour began circulating suggesting that Israel had convinced the current US administration to oppose Hosni's nomination. According to leaks the Bush administration has already started a counter campaign and is keen to convince Barack Obama's incoming administration, as well as some European and Latin American countries, to follow its lead.
Editor's note: I have no way of checking on this story, but thought it might be of interest to Americans interested in UNESCO. JAD
Wednesday, December 24, 2008
Tuesday, December 23, 2008
Bulgaria’s ambassador to France, Irina Bokova, has presented her candidature for the position of UNESCO director-general according to the Bulgarian Foreign Ministry press office.
Earlier, Bulgarian President Georgi Parvanov had announced her nomination in the following terms:
I avail myself the opportunity to inform you about the decision of the Bulgarian government to nominate Mrs. Irina Bokova – Bulgarian ambassador in France and Permanent Representative of Bulgaria to UNESCO, for Director General of UNESCO.
As a career diplomat in UN, UNESCO and a number of other international organizations ambassador Bokova has intense experience in the area of multilateral international relations. As Deputy Foreign Minister, as State Secretary and Minister of Foreign Affairs she has a longlasting managerial experience. She is skilled to held a dialogue and to reach a consensus for taking decisions at the highest level. I would like to express our hope that the countries from South Eastern Europe will support the nomination of Mrs. Bokova and I believe that she will contribute creatively for the promotion and strengthening the role of UNESCO in the area of education, science, culture and communication.
Monday, December 22, 2008
Rosental C. Alves, the Knight Chair in Journalism and UNESCO Chair in Communication at The University of Texas at Austin, has been elected president of Orbicom, a UNESCO network that links international communication leaders in an effort to affect social justice, democracy and good governance.
Alves, who was unanimously elected by the Orbicom board of directors, will serve a two-year term. He succeeds outgoing president Alain Modoux, a communication consultant from Geneva, Switzerland.
As the chairman of the board of Orbicom, Alves will work with the organization's secretariat based in Montreal, Canada, to coordinate the efforts of the network, especially in research of global communication issues.
Read the rest of the press release from the University of Texas at Austin.
Sunday, December 21, 2008
The open teleconference portion of the meeting will be approximately twenty minutes and will address a variety of issues and projects currently before the Commission. During this session, the Commission will accept brief oral comments or questions from the public or media. The public comment period will be limited to approximately ten minutes in total, with about three minutes allowed per speaker. Like other members of the public, media representatives who wish to present oral comments or listen to the conference call should make arrangements with the Commission by December 18, 2008.
The second portion of the teleconference meeting will be closed to the media and public to allow the Commission to discuss applications for the UNESCO Young Professionals Program. This portion is closed pursuant to Section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act and 5 U.S.C. § 552b(c)(6)because of the likely discussion of information of a personal nature regarding the relative merits of individual applicants where disclosure would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy.
For more information or to arrange participation in the open portion of the teleconference meeting, contact Andrew Doran, Deputy Executive Director of the U.S. National Commission for UNESCO, Washington, D.C. 20037. Telephone: (202) 663-0028; Fax: (202) 663-0035; E-mail: DCUNESCO@state.gov.
The UNESCO Courier is celebrating its 60th anniversary. An opportunity to explore the present while looking back at the past. A way, also, to highlight some developments in how we view and think about the world - each paper refers to an article from a back issue of the magazine.
You can read interviews with Wangari Maathai (Kenya), Martti Ahtisaari (Finland), Luc Montagnier (France), just to mention the three Nobel laureates who have contributed to this special issue, alongside other distinguished personalities.
The UNESCO Thesaurus is widely used to standardize the terminology used to describe content in the areas of education, science, culture, social and human sciences, information and communication, and politics, law and economics. It also includes the names of countries and groupings of countries: political, economic, geographic, ethnic and religious, and linguistic groupings. Check it out!
Micro CDS/ISIS is an advanced non-numerical information storage and retrieval software developed by UNESCO since 1985 to satisfy the need of organizations to streamline their information processing activities by using modern (and relatively inexpensive) PC technologies.
Friday, December 19, 2008
Jane Lubchenco is to head up President Obama's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admninistration (NOAA). She is an outstanding choice with a deep background in marine biology. Jane is also a past AAAS president, and past president of the International Council for Science and the Ecological Society of America. She founded the Aldo Leopold Leadership Program that teaches outstanding academic environmental scientists to be effective leaders and communicators of scientific information to the public, policy makers, the media and the private sector.
The Scientific and Technological Community should strengthen its cooperation and coordination with programs of the UN system, especially UNESCO and UNEP.Dr. Lubchenco was one of two conveners of a workshop sponsored by UNESCO's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission in June of this year.
From a statement made to the U.N. Commission on Sustainable Development by Professor Lubchenco when she was President of the International Council for Science , 2004.
Jane Lubchenco on Science Debate 2008
This is a very welcome appointment, and it bodes good things for international scientific cooperation in the Obama administration.
Wednesday, December 17, 2008
The event is supported by UNESCO and is organized by Radio 1812, which is an initiative developed by the Belgium-based NGO December 18. Since its start in 2006, the event has more than tripled in size. Over 50 radio stations broadcast in over 25 countries in 2006. Around 152 radio stations from 34 countries participated in the event last year, and organizers hope to link even more communities together in tomorrow's event. They are making the event increasingly visible as well via their Web site, its audio programs and other media publications, and even its Facebook page.
For more information on how to get involved or learn more about migration, visit Radio 1812's resource center. or UNESCO's International Migration and Multicultural Policies page.
Tuesday, December 16, 2008
The program has the following specific objectives:
- Actively conduct and network research linkages between social and ecological issues;
- Provide a forum for the general public to inform and create community-driven solutions;
- Facilitate development of action-based, multidisciplinary projects working at the interface of human security and management of the natural environment; and
- Provide technical expertise and inform policy to international initiatives, programs and projects.
The brochure describing the project notes:
UNESCO has partnered with the Center for Bioenvironmental Research of Tulane University and the Stockholm Resilience Center in post-Katrina New Orleans and coastal Louisiana to create a world-class program to research urban ecosystems at risk.The work in New Orleans is one of a number of coordinated studies networked via ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability. You can see descriptions of the cases at this website.
Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research Deputy Director, Douglas Meffert, serves as the New Orleans coordinator for UNESCOʼs Urban Biosphere International Partnership of Cities which also includes New York and Phoenix (USA), Stockholm (Sweden), Cape Town (South Africa), Istanbul (Turkey), and Canberra (Australia). Read more about the Center's UrbanEco effort.
UNESCO has been involved with a major effort on People, Biodiversity & Ecology for many years, built around the Man and the Biosphere Program. UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Urban Group is specifically backing this program in conjunction with the Urban Biosphere Network (URBIS), a collaboration between UNESCO and the Stockholm Resilience Center.
This project illustrates one of the ways in which the United States can benefit domestically from UNESCO's ability to form international networks in the sciences. The work of the scientists in New Orleans will be strengthened by their collaboration with researchers from other nations, and the combined body of knowledge from the comparative case studies will enrich our general understanding of urban ecology, and understanding which will in all probability improve the effectiveness of the reconstruction in New Orleans.
Monday, December 15, 2008
David Dickson wrote an editorial for SciDev.Net making the important point that more should be done to enable people to exercise their rights to access to scientific information and the beneficial products of its application.
We must clarify the 'human right' to science — and remind governments of their contractual obligation to uphold it.I agree completely!
The right is acknowledged in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:
Article 27.Remember, the United States is not only a signatory to this Declaration, but encouraged its development and supported Eleanor Roosevelt as the chair of the committee that drafted the report.
(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.
It is also acknowledged in the United Nations in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights:
Article 11The United States ratified this Covenant in 1977, and thereby obligated to abide by its provisions.2. The States Parties to the present Covenant, recognizing the fundamental right of everyone to be free from hunger, shall take, individually and through international co-operation, the measures, including specific programmes, which are needed:Article 15
(a) To improve methods of production, conservation and distribution of food by making full use of technical and scientific knowledge, by disseminating knowledge of the principles of nutrition and by developing or reforming agrarian systems in such a way as to achieve the most efficient development and utilization of natural resources;1. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone:
(a) To take part in cultural life;
(b) To enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications;
(c) To benefit from the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.
2. The steps to be taken by the States Parties to the present Covenant to achieve the full realization of this right shall include those necessary for the conservation, the development and the diffusion of science and culture.
3. The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to respect the freedom indispensable for scientific research and creative activity.
4. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the benefits to be derived from the encouragement and development of international contacts and co-operation in the scientific and cultural fields.
The rights to science must be understood in the context of the overall set of rights. Half the world's population is extremely poor by American standards. That poverty is not merely lack of income and wealth, it also involves poor education, poor health services, poor access to knowledge and education, poor access to technology, poor access to food and inadequate housing. Unless poverty is ameliorated, there will be no real access to science and its beneficial applications.
Everyone, even those of us fortunate enough to live in affluent societies, obtain our access to science via institutions, including importantly educational institutions. However, market institutions provide us to products produced by corporate institutions applying scientific knowledge in their production. Assuring people the rights to knowledge involves implanting the needed policies and building the needed institutions. It also involves educating not only the consumers of science and its products, but also the vast workforce needed to develop, disseminate, and utilize scientific knowledge.
There are still government policies that deny people access to scientific knowledge, censoring information that government officials feel would be dangerous for the public to know or censoring information generally catching scientific information in the net as part of the total injunction. I find the deliberate obstruction of access to scientific knowledge even more unforgivable than failure to take the positive steps needed to promote such access.
Not only does UNESCO seek to promote human rights through all of its programs, it has been intimately involved in the United Nations processes through which the nations of the world have agreed to honor those rights. Through its natural science programs it has fostered international cooperation in science. Its programs focusing on oceans, water, geology, and other sciences have helped to make information widely available on natural resources and their sustainable development.
Information from the social and human sciences is especially sensitive in many countries. While people must understand their societies and their economies if they are to progress, and indeed must understand human behavior, such knowledge can challenge traditional beliefs and threaten dysfunctional elites. UNESCO has been especially involved in improving the use of scientific knowledge in the policy making process.
Science education has been an important element of UNESCO's programs since its inception, involving both its educational programs and its science programs. UNESCO has focused not only on science in the pre-college years, but has also promoted university education, and indeed has helped establish post-graduate opportunities for students of the pure and applied sciences.
UNESCO's Communications and Information Program has worked to help developing countries to improve both the information and communications infrastructure and the content provided through that infrastructure. For many people in developing nations, the mass media are the most available means of access to scientific information, and thus it is critical that the content broadcast through the media be appropriate for their needs and interests.
Thus one way to promote peoples rights to scientific knowledge and its application is to support UNESCO and its programs.
(The ideas expressed in this editorial are those of the author and do not necessarily represent those of Americans for UNESCO.)
Read about UNESCO's celebration of the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Monday, December 08, 2008
The publication is divided into five chapters:
- defining slavery in all its forms;
- presenting data on the scale of slavery, slave trading and other forms of human bondage;
- examining differences and similarities between historical and contemporary practices;
- identifying, via case studies in the United States, Saint Domingue/Haiti, Great Britain and Portugal, the main paths through which abolition of slavery has historically occurred; and,
- through a further series of case studies, exploring the key limitations of the legal abolition of slavery.
Slavery may have been legally abolished around the world, but it remains “a widespread and deeply rooted component on contemporary life” concludes the first-ever comparative analysis of historical slave systems and modern forms of human bondage, published online today by UNESCO.
Sunday, December 07, 2008
“From now on, we will organise activities every 12 March to condemn cyber-censorship throughout the world,” Reporters Without Borders said. “A response of this kind is needed to the growing tendency to crack down on bloggers and to close websites."The organization has issued an updated list of “Internet Enemies” as part of its actions to mark this day.
There are 15 countries in this year’s Reporters Without Borders list of “Internet Enemies” - Belarus, Burma, China, Cuba, Egypt, Ethiopia, Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam and Zimbabwe. There were only 13 in 2007. The two new additions to the traditional censors are both to be found in sub-Saharan Africa: Zimbabwe and Ethiopia.Simultaneously, RWB reported:
“This is not at all surprising as these regimes regularly hound the traditional media,” Reporters Without Borders says in the introduction to its report.“Internet penetration is very slight, but nevertheless sufficient to give them a few nightmares. They follow the example of their seniors and draw on the full arsenal of online censorship methods including legislation, monitoring Internet cafés and controlling ISPs.”
There is also a supplementary list of 11 “countries under watch.” They are Bahrain, Eritrea, Gambia, Jordan, Libya, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Thailand, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. Unlike the “enemies,” these countries do not imprison bloggers or censor the Internet massively. But they are sorely tempted and abuses are common. Many of them have laws that they could use to gag the Internet if they wanted. And the judicial or political authorities often use anti-terrorism laws to identify and monitor government opponents and activists expressing themselves online.
Reporters Without Borders learned last night that UNESCO has withdrawn its patronage for today’s Online Free Expression Day. We were notified of the decision by the director of its Freedom of Expression, Democracy and Peace Division. Defending the move, UNESCO said it gave its patronage for the “principle of this day” but could not support the various demonstrations organised to mark it.UNESCO's charter calls for it to support freedom of information and the press, and UNESCO has supported RWB in the past:
More than a third of the world's people live in countries where there is no press freedom. Reporters Without Borders works constantly to restore their right to be informed.I was unable to find an explanation on the UNESCO website of its withdrawal, and indeed I was unable to find any mention of "Online Free Expression Day." However, the Latin American News Agency (headquartered in Havana, Cuba) Prensa Latina reports:
A UNESCO diplomatic source told Prensa Latina on Wednesday that the UN body had made the decision based on RSF´s "reiterated lack of ethics" and its attempts to discredit a given number of countries.Editorial comment: It has always seemed to me that Reporters Without Borders is a highly reputable organization, performing an important function. I agree that the analysis by RWB is probably correct:
UNESCO"s profile or purposes are not in line with RSF"s performance for sensationalist interest nor it is acting as a court of inquisition for developing nations, the source said.
For this and other causes the UN body definitely declared the relation with RSF closed, and excluded any kind of collaboration in the future.
“We are not fooled,” Reporters Without Borders said. “Several governments on today’s updated list of 15 ‘Internet Enemies’ put direct pressure on the office of the UNESCO director general, and deputy director general Marcio Barbosa caved in. UNESCO’s reputation has not been enhanced by this episode. It has behaved with great cowardice at a time when the governments that got it to stage a U-turn continue to imprison dozens of Internet users.”The United States Government should investigate UNESCO's conduct in this matter. If indeed UNESCO has yielded to the pressures of countries identified by RWB as impinging on freedom of expression on the Internet and is withdrawing from its charter responsibilities to safeguard freedom of expression the U.S. Government should make the strongest possible protest.
(The opinion is that of the author and does not necessarily represent that of Americans for UNESCO.)
Friday, December 05, 2008
Journalists from across Central Asia learned the basics of covering environmental issues on the web at a workshop in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan in late November.
The Digital Informational Network on Environment and Sustainable Development in Central Asia and Russia (CARNet) organized the regional training of trainers workshop, launched within the framework of UNESCO’s International Programme for the Development of Communication (IPDC) project Training in Central Asia in Reporting Environmental News Online. Fifteen journalists from five Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan), participated to acquire the skills necessary to practice environmental journalism on the web – and spread the knowledge to more journalists in their countries.
The workshop drew widespread praise in Central Asia. The environmental ministers of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan signed a letter supporting the goal of advancing trainers on education for sustainable development within the framework of UNESCO activities. The Interstate Commission on Sustainable Development for Central Asia (ICSD) formally backed the course as well, noting that the organization of such events will greatly enhance implementation of the Aarhus Convention, increase public awareness and improve the quality and timeliness of reporting on environmental issues.
The Chairman of the Tajik Government Committee on the Environment, Mr. Khursandkul Zikirov, voiced his support for the effort as well: “In my country, we are constantly looking for ways to improve interaction amongst journalists. For example, we organize press conferences for journalists twice a month in Tajikistan. But unfortunately the use of Internet technologies is not yet sufficiently widespread. I very much hope that with the support of UNESCO and through this initiative to improve the skills of journalists, we will address this issue and facilitate the rapid dissemination of information.”
UNESCO’s IPDC supported participants from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Trainers from Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan participated with co-financing from the Regional Environment Centre for Central Asia.
Thursday, December 04, 2008
Read more about:
The Global Land Cover Facility of the University of Maryland maintains The World Database of Protected Areas.
The WDPA Consortium provides a focal point through which information and ideas are both pooled and shared. The Consortium members through their own projects and programmes and by tapping into a network of in-country expertise, perform a vital information-gathering role. After such information has been entered into the WDPA, the Consortium provide a quality control function by cross checking/evaluating data holdings and suggesting improvements.The areas covered include:
- UNESCO World Heritage Natural and Mixed Sites
- UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserves
- Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar)
- ASEAN Heritage Declaration Sites
- International Maritime Organization (IMO) Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas
Wednesday, December 03, 2008
This agreement brings the latest satellite technology to UNESCO member states and adds a significant member to the "Open Initiative on the use of space technologies for World Heritage sites” formed in 2001. The inclusion of JAXA in this group also mobilizes the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS or also known as the Daichi) for the study and protection of World Heritage sites. For the full article and information on other space initiatives, click here.
- Identify issues and challenges facing engineering
- Promote better public understanding of engineering and its role in society, and
- Highlight ways of making engineering and engineering education more attractive to young people, especially women
Tuesday, December 02, 2008
- the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),
- the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),
- the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Forest Service (USDA/FS), and
- the U.S. Trade and Development Agency (USTDA).
The objective of the U.S. IOTWS Program was to provide strategic support to the international effort led by UNESCO's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission to develop an operational IOTWS that provides integrated end-to-end capabilities at the regional, national, and local levels within a multi-hazard framework.
Following the December 2004 Tsunami, the international community took a series of steps to initiate a coordinated effort to develop an Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System (IOTWS). Working through a series of meetings convened by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), the governments of the region agreed to develop an IOTWS within an interconnected network to be coordinated through an Intergovernmental Coordination Group (ICG) under the auspices of the IOC.
Following completion of the Program, U.S. Government agencies and Program partners will continue to provide technical guidance and capacity building through to help ensure the long-term sustainability of Program tools, products, and initiatives.
Click here for further information on the Program activities, outcomes, and plans for sustainability.
Conference attendees will attempt to develop innovative technologies and approaches to address water scarcity and the effects of global climate change on water availability and quality.
The event brings together leading water management and climate change experts, scientists, engineers, policy-makers, lawyers, economists, and executives of water services from local and regional authorities.
UNESCO’s contribution is interdisciplinary. Efforts to combat HIV and AIDS are driven by the scientific discovery, research and scientific knowledge of the virus. The Organization therefore has a vital role to play in the promotion and support related to the dissemination of scientific information on:
- the biology of infectious organisms generally, and specifically about HIV
- advances in basic research in the area of HIV and AIDS and its role in combating the pandemic.
:: Message from UNESCO Director-General (.pdf)
:: UNESCO's activities to commemorate the World AIDS Day 2008 (More)
:: UNESCO's activities worldwide (More)
:: UNESCO Intersectoral Programme (More)
:: UNESCO Education and HIV and AIDS (More)
:: UNESCO Natural Sciences and HIV and AIDS (More)
:: UNESCO Culture in response to and HIV and AIDS (More)
:: UNESCO Communication and Information on HIV and AIDS (More)
Mambillikalathil G. K. Menon, a TWAS founder who advises India's Space Research Organization, is calling for projects funded by developing nations that might parallel Europe-wide ventures such as the European Space Agency and CERN......SESAME was created under the auspices of UNESCO, and came into existence as an intergovernmental organization (IGO) on 15 April 2004.
One such regional effort seems likely to succeed, says Moneef R. Zou'bi, director general of the Islamic World Academy of Sciences: the Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME). It brings together scientists from 10 Middle Eastern countries to conduct experiments at a relocated German synchrotron that will start operating next year in Jordan.
The Washington Post today analyzes the implication of the appointment of Susan E. Rice to be U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations. Dr. Rice was a senior foreign policy advisor to Barack Obama during two years of his campaign, and was expected by many to be appointed to a position in the White House.
But Obama decided instead to put her in New York, in a more visible role -- ambassador to the United Nations -- and thereby send a message to the world's diplomats: The United States will look more kindly, come Jan. 20, on multilateralism and U.N. peacekeeping missions.
Obama said yesterday that he is restoring Rice's position to a Cabinet-level rank, an indication that he views the job as central to his goal of fostering more international cooperation.......
U.N. officials welcomed the selection of Rice, an unapologetic proponent of multilateralism, and said the decision to upgrade the post to Cabinet rank showed the Obama administration meant to pay greater attention to the world body.
"She's a woman of intellect, a woman of passion and somebody who would like to get things done," said Ibrahim Gambari, a senior U.N. troubleshooter who first met Rice when he was Nigeria's U.N. ambassador during the military rule of Sani Abacha.